But, as an external territory, Papua New Guinea was not guaranteed the same standards that applied to mainland Australia. Noah Musingku, under the name "King David Peii II", is head of the twin "kingdoms" of Papaala and Me’ekamui on Bougainville Island in the North Solomon Islands. Towards the end of 1988 the longstanding antipathy of landowners towards the mining company, Bougainville Copper Limited (BCL), erupted into violence. In the resulting saga, Prime Minister Chan was forced to resign, and Papua New Guinea came very close to a military coup. The Bougainville Civil War, also known as the Bougainville conflict, was a multi-layered armed conflict fought from 1988 to 1998 in the North Solomons Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) between PNG and the secessionist forces of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA), and between the BRA and other armed groups on Bougainville. Local people made two attempts at secession in protest of the mining exploitation. ISBN: 9781921934230 (paperback) 9781921934247 (ebook) Subjects: Bougainville Island (Papua New Guinea)--History. Operations of the mine at Panguna and sharing of its revenues had been perhaps the major sticking point between Bougainville and PNG government. Bougainville Island is the main island of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville of Papua New Guinea. This allowed labour recruiters to enter new regions and secure more workers for the plantations. Sandline sparked a lowpoint in the Bougainvillean war. The Japanese occupied the island early in 1942. [12], The Northern Solomons were initially grouped with the Bismarck Archipelago for German administrative purposes. In September, BRA militants attacked a PNG army camp at Kangu Beach with the help of members of a local militia group, killing twelve PNGDF soldiers and taking five hostage. The total tax revenue for 1913 was almost 28,000 marks, about half of which was collected in Kieta. [5] The Austronesians brought with them a fully agricultural lifestyle, also introducing distinctive pottery and domesticated pigs, dogs and chickens to Bougainville. All rights reserved. On the island of Buka north of Bougainville, a local militia formed and drove out the BRA with the help of Papuan troops, during a bloody offensive in September 1990. Bougainville, officially the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, is an autonomous region in Papua New Guinea. But at the time of the Bougainville Crisis there were other ways that things could have been handled. (UNPO) [ permanent dead link ] As part of the current peace settlement, a referendum on independence was to be held sometime in the 2010s, with an apparent small minority of fighters left in the centre of the island, and enough instability to ensure that the mine remained closed. There has been substantial genetic and cultural mixing between the Austronesian and non-Austronesian populations, "such that language is no longer correlated with either genetics or culture in any direct or simplistic way". Attempts to resolve the standoff continued, and Bougainville Copper continued to deny responsibility for the grievances brought by Ona and his supporters. One of the most beautiful island groups of the Pacific, Bougainville has a remarkable history. The Republic of the North Solomons was an unrecognised state that purported to exist for about six months in what is now the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea (PNG). By 1974, the BSPC had reached a compromise with a Special Committee of the Papuan Parliament, which would have given the island greater autonomy. [35]. The leader of the BRA was Francis Ona who led the BRA against the Papua New Guinea Defence Force during the violent 10 year conflict. The Panguna mine opened in 1969 under their subsidiary, Bougainville Copper Ltd. On 17 May 1990, Ona declared the independence of the Republic of Me'ekamui. The mine was the largest non-aid revenue stream of the Government of Papua New Guinea from 1975, when it became independent, to the mine's closure in 1989. He angered residents of the Solomon Islands after a bloody raid on one island that was alleged to be supporting the Bougainvilleans. Father Albert Binois wrote to his superiors that the Protestants were "friends of the devil". There was also some logistical support given to the constitutional consultation and drafting process from 2003. The subsequent Allied campaign to reclaim the islands resulted in heavy casualties and the eventual restoration of Australian control in 1945. In addition, they began to recognise that they were bearing the total effects of the mine's environmental consequences for the island. A decade of violent conflict Prehistory. The present-day boundaries between Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands were established by the Tripartite Convention of 1899. [9], Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire were the first Europeans to sight present-day Bougainville, skirting Takuu Atoll and Nissan Island in 1616. The Panguna mine was established in 1969 and soon become a source of conflict. The main island was named after French admiral Louis Antoine de Bougainville, who reached it in 1768. Kauona became the spokesperson for the BRA. A decade-long civil war costing some 15,000 lives (the number may be as high as 20,000) and displacing 40,000 was waged between the Bougainville Revolutionary Army and the Papua New Guinea Defence Force through the 1990s. The German Empire placed Bougainville under a protectorate in 1886, while the remainder of the Solomon Islands became part of the British Empire in 1893. 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