The term "Rajput" acquired its present meaning only in the 16th century, although it is also anachronistically used to describe the earlier lineages that emerged in North India from the sixth century onwards. The Rajput clans of lower ritual status married their daughters to Rajput men of higher ritual status who had lost females due to infanticide. Following a brief confrontation, however, Muhammad Hakim accepted Akbar's supremacy and retreated back to Kabul. She died on 19 May 1623. An orthodox Muslim at the outset, he later came to be influenced by Sufi mysticism that was being preached in the country at that time, and moved away from orthodoxy, appointing to his court several talented people with liberal ideas, including Abul Fazl, Faizi and Birbal. The empire's permanent standing army was quite small and the imperial forces mostly consisted of contingents maintained by the mansabdars. Moreover the Rajputs got divided among themselves. Akbar successfully defeated the rebels, but he had grown more cautious about his guests and his proclamations, which he later checked with his advisers carefully. [67] Beleaguered by constant Uzbek raids, and seeing the reception of Rostom Mirza at the Mughal court, the Safavid prince and governor of Kandahar, Mozaffar Hosayn, also agreed to defect to the Mughals. [91][92] Jason Freitag, his only significant biographer, has said that Tod is "manifestly biased".[93]. Several Uzbek chieftains were subsequently slain and the rebel leaders trampled to death under elephants. [58] Akbar returned to Fatehpur Sikri and left his generals to finish the campaign. The diversity of these accounts is attributed to the fact that his reign resulted in the formation of a flexible centralised state accompanied by personal authority and cultural heterogeneity. Najib told Akbar that his uncle had made his daughter a present for him. [134] He suppressed Mahdavism in 1573 during his campaign in Gujarat, in the course of which the Mahdavi leader Bandagi Miyan Sheik Mustafa was arrested and brought in chains to the court for debate and released after eighteen months. Similarly, these Rajputs of Garhwal were shown by Gerald Berreman to have a ritually low status until as late as the 20th century. The assassin was apprehended and ordered beheaded by the Emperor. [173] Such hagiographical accounts of Akbar traversed a wide range of denominational and sectarian spaces, including several accounts by Parsis, Jains and Jesuit missionaries, apart from contemporary accounts by Brahminical and Muslim orthodoxy. Upset by this, Akbar opened the Ibadat Khana to people of all religions as well as atheists, resulting in the scope of the discussions broadening and extending even into areas such as the validity of the Quran and the nature of God. Akbar first moved against Gujarat, which lay in the crook of the Mughal provinces of Rajputana and Malwa. Pir Muhammad Khan was then sent in pursuit of Baz Bahadur but was beaten back by the alliance of the rulers of Khandesh and Berar. [35] Sikandar Shah Suri, however, presented no major concern for Akbar,[36] and avoided giving battle as the Mughal army approached. [62] Baltistan and Ladakh, which were Tibetan provinces adjacent to Kashmir, pledged their allegiance to Akbar. [85] The interaction between Hindu and Muslim nobles in the imperial court resulted in exchange of thoughts and blending of the two cultures. [158] Even as he was in the Punjab, 200 miles away from the Ganges, the water was sealed in large jars and transported to him. Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent. The reign of Akbar was characterised by commercial expansion. [62] Subsequently, in 1518 the Rajput Mewar Kingdom under Rana Sanga achieved a major victory over Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi of Delhi Sultanate and afterwards Rana's influence extended up to the striking distance of Pilia Khar in Agra. [35], Urged by Bairam Khan, who re-marshalled the Mughal army before Hemu could consolidate his position, Akbar marched on Delhi to reclaim it. Akbar made matrimonial alliances with many other Rajput princess as well (two exceptions were Mewar and Ranthambore. [34], Akbar's father Humayun had regained control of the Punjab, Delhi, and Agra with Safavid support, but even in these areas Mughal rule was precarious, and when the Surs reconquered Agra and Delhi following the death of Humayun, the fate of the boy emperor seemed uncertain. This also formed the basis for Akbar's policy of religious toleration. [195], His eleventh wife was Bibi Daulat Shad. The origin of the Rajputs has been a much-debated topic among historians. [53], The fall of Chittorgarh was followed up by a Mughal attack on the Ranthambore Fort in 1568. ADVERTISEMENTS: Aurangzeb’s Rajput policy led to conflict on account of the […] [97] In 1573, he issued a firman directing Mughal administrative officials in Gujarat not to provoke the Portuguese in the territory they held in Daman. To further strengthen his position in dealing with the Qazis, Akbar issued a mazhar, or declaration, that was signed by all major ulemas in 1579. [43] Bairam Khan was later assassinated on his way to Mecca, allegedly by an Afghan with a personal vendetta. He abolished the jizya (poll tax) on non-Muslims and the tax on Hindu pilgrims. [58] In contrast to the problem that his predecessors once had in getting Mughal nobles to stay on in India, the problem now was to get them to leave India. [11][12] While many of these colonial writers propagated this foreign-origin theory in order to legitimise the colonial rule, the theory was also supported by some Indian scholars, such as D. R. The estates, treasures, and practices of the old Rajput rulers now form a key part of Rajasthan's tourist trade and cultural memory. [150][151], It has been argued that the theory of Din-i-Ilahi being a new religion was a misconception that arose because of erroneous translations of Abul Fazl's work by later British historians. [152][153][better source needed] In states such as Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttrakhand, Jammu, Himachal Pradesh, and Gujarat, the large populations of Rajputs gives them a decisive role. By 1573, he had driven out the Mirzas who, after offering token resistance, fled for refuge in the Deccan. [140], Female Infanticide was practiced by Rajputs of low ritual status trying upward mobility as well as Rajputs of high ritual status. 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