He was given the nomination without opposition at the party's national convention in Indianapolis. He assumed command of the District of West Louisiana on August 4. That morning, February 16, Buckner asked Grant for terms. [81] In spite of his withdrawal, he still received 9 of the 134 votes cast in the General Assembly. In an unusual move, Wilder agreed to be blindfolded and brought to Buckner. Those who were interested in the "Battle of Shiloh" article of the July, i9!9» number of the Magazine, will find further interest in this article, especially with ref-erence to General Grant, etc. Gen. John B. Floyd, launched a surprise attack, led by his second-in-command, Brig. Grant's forces also controlled nearby rivers and railroads. [52], Grant, who was courteous to Buckner following the surrender, offered to loan him money to see him through his impending imprisonment, but Buckner declined. On October 10 of the same year, Buckner's sister died, and he was left alone. [28] Of the 500 Confederate shots fired, St. Louis was hit 59 times, Carondelet 54, Louisville 36, and Pittsburg 20 times. [6], Johnston decided upon a course of action that forfeited the initiative across most of his defensive line, tacitly admitting that the Confederate defensive strategy for Tennessee was a sham. Early in the morning of February 11, Grant held a council of war in which all of his generals supported his plans for an attack on Fort Donelson, with the exception of Brig. Grants Operationen gegen Fort Donelson dauerte von 11 bis 16 Februar 1862. [66] Other prominent candidates included Congressman Thomas Laurens Jones, former congressman J. Proctor Knott, and Louisville mayor Charles Donald Jacob. Buckner joined many of his fellow generals in publicly denouncing Bragg's performance during the campaign. As Grant rode back from the river, he heard the sounds of guns and sent word to Foote to begin a demonstration of naval gunfire, assuming that his troops would be demoralized and could use the encouragement. [18], On February 12, most of the Union troops departed Fort Henry, where they were waiting for the return of Union gunboats and the arrival of additional troops that would increase the Union forces to about 25,000 men. As governor, Buckner became known for vetoing special interest legislation. Forrest's troops, sent out by Buckner, spotted a detachment from McClernand's division and opened fire against them. "[10] This self-imposed deadline was overly optimistic due to three factors: miserable road conditions on the twelve-mile march to Donelson, the need for troops to carry supplies away from the rising flood waters (by February 8, Fort Henry was completely submerged),[11] and the damage that had been sustained by Foote's Western Gunboat Flotilla in the artillery duel at Fort Henry. [50] Buckner was briefly given command of Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood's division in February 1864, and on March 8, he was given command of the reestablished Department of East Tennessee. [80] He was buried in Frankfort Cemetery in Frankfort, Kentucky. [70] Buckner was 62; Claiborne was 28. McClernand's right flank, which faced Pillow, had insufficient men to reach overflowing Lick Creek, so it was left unanchored. In turn, Pillow passed the command to Buckner, who agreed to remain behind and surrender the army. It was the North’s first major victory of the Civil War, opening the way into the very heart of the Confederacy. The attack suffered light casualties and made no gains, but Smith was able to keep up a harassing fire throughout the night. The General Simon Bolivar Buckner, however, argued that they were in a desperate position that was getting worse with the arrival of Union reinforcements. Bragg left his army and met Kirby Smith in Frankfort, where he was able to attend the inauguration of Confederate Governor Richard Hawes on October 4. Floyd and Pillow turned over command of Fort Donelson to Buckner and slipped away to Nashville with about 2,000 men. He sent orders to General Wallace, who had been left behind at Fort Henry, to bring his men to Fort Donelson. On April 19, Smith consolidated the District of Arkansas with the District of West Louisiana; the combined district was put under Buckner's command. [34], The asperity of these notes was only superficial; Buckner greeted his old friend warmly when Grant arrived to accept the surrender. The outer works were bounded by Hickman Creek to the west, Lick Creek to the east, and the Cumberland River to the north. Wallace assembled these new troops into a third division of two brigades, under Cols. "All 'self-disposed persons' who return to 'peaceful pursuits' are assured that may resume their usual avocations . [88] The following year, he visited his son, who was stationed in Texas, and toured old Mexican–American War battlefields where he had served. Over 16,000 Confederate troops were now in Fort Donelson. General Pillow was designated to lead a breakout attempt, evacuate the fort, and march to Nashville. The unconditional surrender of Fort Donelson was the north's first major victory of the Civil War, opening the way into the very heart of the Confederacy. [8][9] He was assigned to garrison duty at Sackett's Harbor on Lake Ontario until August 28, 1845, when he returned to the Academy to serve as an assistant professor of geography, history, and ethics. [75] State auditor Fayette Hewitt was censured for neglecting the duty of his office, but was not implicated in Tate's theft or disappearance. [38], Grant, who was apparently unaware of the battle, was notified by an aide and returned to his troops in the early afternoon. Grant replied, "It seems so. On the Union left, C. F. Smith sent two of his four brigades (under Cols. Kurz & Allison, Art Publishers [1887]. [9], On February 6, Grant wired Halleck: "Fort Henry is ours. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S. Confederate States presidential election of 1861, Commanding General of the United States Army, 1865–1869, United States presidential election, 1868, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Fort_Donelson&oldid=983383602, Battles of the Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers of the American Civil War, Battles of the Western Theater of the American Civil War, Union victories of the American Civil War, Battles of the American Civil War in Tennessee, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Hamilton, James J. At their final council of war in the Dover Hotel at 1:30 a.m. on February 16, Buckner stated that if C.F. By September 17, however, Wilder recognized his difficult position and asked Bragg for proof of the superior numbers he claimed. In this position, he tried to enforce Kentucky's neutrality policy in the early days of the Civil War. Grant observed that some of the Confederates (Buckner's) were fighting with knapsacks filled with three days of rations, which implied to him that they were attempting to escape, not pressing for a combat victory. ", The officers and men are to be "paroled until duly exchanged.". . Grant began plans to resume his assault in the morning, although neglecting to close the escape route that Pillow had opened. [56], The site of the battle has been preserved by the National Park Service as Fort Donelson National Battlefield. Floyd was furious at this change of plans, but by then it was too late in the day to proceed. Two years after Fort Donelson, Grant was preparing to assume the title of Lieutenant General, a rank previously held only by George Washington. [83], Palmer and Buckner both had developed reputations as independent executives while serving as governors of their respective states. The official results of the election gave Buckner a plurality of 16,797 over Bradley. They formed a new party—the National Democratic Party, or Gold Democrats—which Buckner joined. [66] Buckner consistently ran third in the first six ballots, but withdrew his name from consideration before the seventh ballot. McClernand, C.F. They were delayed most of the day by a cavalry screen commanded by Nathan Bedford Forrest. His division was sent without him to support Longstreet in the Knoxville Campaign, while the remainder of Bragg's army was defeated in the Chattanooga Campaign. Beauregard had allowed Major Robert Anderson to march his troops out under arms while the victors formed ranks and delivered a salute. Grant believed his position allowed him to forego a planned siege and successfully storm the fort. [37], The Confederate offensive ended around 12:30 p.m., when Wallace's and Thayer's Union troops formed a defensive line on a ridge astride Wynn's Ferry Road. [18], Before leaving the Army, Buckner helped an old friend from West Point and the Mexican–American War, Captain Ulysses S. Grant, by covering his expenses at a New York hotel until money arrived from Ohio to pay for his passage home. Wallace, Isabel, and William Hervy Lamme Wallace. [42] [22], General Grant had Commander Henry Walke bring the Carondelet up the Cumberland River to create a diversion by opening fire on the fort. Later that year, a Louisville militia known as the Citizens' Guard was formed, and Buckner was made its captain. If Grant had been able to move quickly, he might have taken Fort Donelson on February 8. View stories about Simon B Buckner at Fold3.com." [53], Buckner had difficulty traveling to the West, and it was early summer before he arrived. The surrender became official when Smith endorsed it on June 2, (Only Brigadier General Stand Watie held out longer, he surrendered the last Confederate land forces on June 23, 1865). He resigned from the army in 1855 to manage his father-in-law's real estate in Chicago, Illinois. Despite Johnston's high regard for Buell, the Union general was as passive as Grant was aggressive. 174–75; Woodworth, p. 91. [20], In late 1857, Buckner and his family returned to his native state and settled in Louisville. On land the well-armed Union soldiers surrounded the Confederates, while the Union boats, although damaged, still controlled the river. The battle resulted in virtually all of Kentucky as well as much of Tennessee, including Nashville, falling under Union control. The three divisions were commanded by Floyd (replaced by Colonel Gabriel C. Wharton when Floyd took command of the entire force) and Brig. There were three miles (5 km) of trenches in a semicircle around the fort and the small town of Dover. Gen. Daniel S. Donelson, who selected its site and began construction in 1861. Buckner was stunned by the tone of Grant’s reply and had to reread it several times. This led the state to declare itself officially neutral. [1] Faced with the prospect that his malfeasance would be discovered, Tate absconded with nearly $250,000 of state funds. Simon Bolivar Buckner, commanding Fort Donelson, to General Ulysses S. Grant. For six years, these three inhabited and repaired the house and grounds which had been neglected during the war and its aftermath. Simon Bolivar Buckner (April 1, 1823 – January 8, 1914) was an American soldier and politician who fought in the United States Army in the Mexican–American War and in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Cook's brigade would be in support to the right and rear and act as a feint to draw fire away from Lauman's brigade. His term was plagued by violent feuds in the eastern part of the state, including the Hatfield–McCoy feud and the Rowan County War. At dawn on February 15, the Confederates launched an assault led by Pillow against McClernand's division on the unprotected right flank of the Union line. Cruft's brigade was sent in to replace Oglesby's and McArthur's brigades, but when they realized they had run into Pillow's Confederates and were being flanked, they too began to fall back. The capture of Forts Henry and Donelson were the first significant Union victories in the war and opened two great rivers to invasion in the heartland of the South. Shortly after their wedding, he was assigned to Fort Snelling and later to Fort Atkinson on the Arkansas River in present-day Kansas. [69], On June 10, 1885, Buckner married Delia Claiborne of Richmond, Virginia. Two regiments of cavalry and eight batteries of artillery supported the infantry divisions. Fort Donelson was fought from February 11 to February 16, 1862, in the Western Theatre of the American Civil War. Wood, who would become a Union Army general opposing Buckner at the Battle of Perryville and the Battle of Chickamauga during the Civil War. Ulysses S. Grant, February 16, 1862 February 11-16, 1862 Estimated Casualties: 17,398 total (US 2,331; CS 15,067) After capturing Fort Henry on February 6, 1862, Brig. (The second was John C. Pemberton's at the Siege of Vicksburg and the third Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox). Ein Grossteil der konföderierten Truppen in Tennessee und Kentucky war geschlagen. McPherson, p. 402: 12,000 to 13,000. Stickles, pp. April 1823 in Munfordville, Hart County, Kentucky; † 8. He was elected governor of Kentucky in 1887. Nearly surrounding the fortifications that guarded a large river battery and encompassed the town of Dover, Grant's men were … Buckner called for reinforcements from Bragg at Chattanooga, but Bragg was being threatened by forces under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans and could not spare any of his men. Beauregard at Columbus, Kentucky, with 12,000 men, and William J. Hardee at Bowling Green, Kentucky, with 22,000 men. Conditions set forth in Buckner's surrender were the following: The terms of Buckner's parole in Shreveport, Louisiana, on June 9, 1865, prevented his return to Kentucky for three years. Gott, pp. "The Battle of Fort Donelson.". Buckner, a fellow U.S. Army officer at that time, loaned Grant money to return home to Illinois after Grant had been forced to resign his commission.) The ticket was endorsed by several major newspapers including the Chicago Chronicle, Louisville Courier-Journal, Detroit Free Press, Richmond Times, and New Orleans Picayune. Floyd left the next morning on the only steamer available, taking his two regiments of Virginia infantry. Bragg held an ineffective siege against Chattanooga, but refused to take any further action as the Union forces there were reinforced by Ulysses S. Grant and reopened a tenuous supply line. Woodworth, pp. [56], As news of Gen. Robert E. Lee's surrender on April 9, 1865, reached the department, soldiers deserted the Confederacy in droves. On May 9, Smith made Buckner his chief of staff. At this point, Gideon Pillow, and Simon Bolivar Buckner, seasoned army-men, stepped into the field to ease the burden off of an inept John B. Floyd, who had been holding the fort hitherto. [13] Buckner was afforded the honor of lowering the American flag over Mexico City for the last time during the occupation. [80] He died on January 8, 1914, after a week-long bout with uremic poisoning. 266–67; Esposito, maps 30–31. Smith, the 8th Missouri, and the 11th Indiana advanced a short distance up the hill using Zouave tactics, where the men repeatedly rushed and then fell to the ground in a prone position. Buckner joined the Aztec Club, and in April 1848 was a part of the successful expedition of Popocatépetl, a volcano southeast of Mexico City. THE BATTLE AT FORT DONELSON. [71], Delegates to the 1887 state Democratic convention nominated Buckner unanimously for the office of governor. Grant left orders that none of his generals was to initiate an engagement and no one was designated as second-in-command during his absence. Forrest's troops, sent out by Buckner, spotted a detachment from McClernand's division and opened fir… Altogether, the Union forces numbered nearly 25,000 men, although at the start of the battle, only 15,000 were available. The Union capture of the Confederate fort near the Tennessee–Kentucky border opened the Cumberland River, an important avenue for the invasion of the South. [7], Johnston wanted to give command of Fort Donelson to Beauregard, who had performed ably at Bull Run, but the latter declined because of a throat ailment. Within days of the surrender, Clarksville and Nashville would fall into Union hands. Despite his misgivings about its defensibility, Johnston agreed to Beauregard's advice that he should reinforce Fort Donelson with another 12,000 men, knowing that a defeat there would mean the inevitable loss of Middle Tennessee and the vital manufacturing and arsenal city of Nashville. [15] The Union forces proceeded about 5 miles (8 km) on the two main roads leading between the two forts. [47], Floyd, who believed if he was captured, he would be indicted for corruption during his service as Secretary of War in President James Buchanan's cabinet before the war, promptly turned over his command to Pillow, who also feared Northern reprisals. Grant was away from the battlefield at the start of the attack, but arrived to rally his men and counterattack. The Union attack on Fort Donelson started with an attack by four ironclads. The surrender was a personal humiliation for Buckner and a strategic defeat for the Confederacy, which lost more than 12,000 men, 48 artillery pieces, much of their equipment, and control of the Cumberland River, which led to the evacuation of Nashville. On December 31, 1851, he was promoted to first lieutenant, and on November 3, 1852, he was elevated to captain of the commissary department of the 6th U.S. Infantry in New York City. From there, Buckner's unit traveled to Bragg's supply base at Ringgold, Georgia, then on to Lafayette and Chickamauga. 86–87; Gott, pp. Pillow did not like their plan. General Halleck, in a telegraphic dispatch of February 16, from Saint Louis to General McClellan, said he had invested Fort Donelson with a force of 50,000 men, and he had no doubt all communication and supplies were cut off. Others followed cavalryman Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest across swollen Lick Creek. In Davis, William C., and Julie Hoffman. At the conclusion of the war, American soldiers served as an army of occupation, which left them time for leisure activities. )[27] He became a division commander in the Army of Central Kentucky under Brig. Wallace's old brigade of Zouaves (11th Indiana and 8th Missouri), now commanded by Col. Morgan L. Smith, and others from McClernand's and Wallace's divisions were chosen to lead the attack. [23], "Kentucky Governor Simon Bolivar Buckner", National Governors Association, Hamlin Garland Papers, Doheny Library, University of Southern California. [29], Buckner's division defended the right flank of the Confederate line of entrenchments that surrounded the fort and the small town of Dover, Tennessee. General Buell's army threatened Nashville, while John Pope's troops threatened Columbus. Location: Fort Donelson [58], At Fort Donelson, Tennessee, Buckner had become the first Confederate general of the war to surrender an army; at New Orleans, he became the last. [39], Days after Buckner joined Bragg, both Bragg and Maj. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith began an invasion of Kentucky. The Union was now poised to seize Fort Donelson and its river batteries when light returned the next morning. [23], With Floyd's arrival to take command of Fort Donelson, Pillow took over leading the Confederate left. [1] He was never found. Gen. John A. McClernand, who had some reservations. Fort Donelson had only about 5,000 men. At Fort Donelson, Tennessee, Buckner had become the first Confederate general of the war to surrender an army; at New Orleans, he became one of the last. However, this would leave the Confederate forces at Fort Donelson heavily outnumbered. [32] He may have been hoping Grant would offer generous terms, remembering the assistance he gave Grant when he was destitute, but Grant's reply was curt, with the famous quotation, "No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. The Confederates assaulted them three times, but were unsuccessful and withdrew to a ridge 0.5 miles (0.80 km) away. 194–203; Cooling. [41], Battle of Perryville: Actions in Buckner's sector (~ 3:45 p.m.), Based on intelligence acquired by a spy in Buell's army, Buckner advised Bragg that Buell was still ten miles from Louisville in the town of Mackville. [28], After Union Brig. Isham N. Haynie, colonel of the 48th Illinois, was senior in rank to Colonel Morrison. [86] His son would later serve in the U.S. Army and be killed at the Battle of Okinawa, making him the highest-ranking American to have been killed by enemy fire during World War II. No formal records were taken of the Confederates who surrendered and estimates vary. [43] He arrived in Knoxville on May 11, 1863, and assumed command the following day. [57] Smith had instead instructed Buckner to move all the troops to Houston, Texas. [1] In 1895, he was one of four candidates nominated for a seat in the U.S. Senate — the others being the incumbent, J. C. S. Blackburn; outgoing governor John Y. Shortly after his inauguration, the Rowan County War escalated to vigilantism, when residents of the county organized a posse and killed several of the leaders of the feud. Because of the proximity of the enemy lines and the active sharpshooters, the soldiers could not light campfires for warmth or cooking, and both sides were miserable that night, many having arrived without blankets or overcoats. In the meantime, on the Union right, Lew Wallace formed an attacking column with three brigades—one from his own division, one from McClernand's, and one from Smith's—to try to regain control of ground lost in the battle that morning. The note first reached General Smith, who exclaimed, "No terms to the damned Rebels!" 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